Chapter I: Introduction to and History of Psychology

Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.

Empirical approach is a scientific method of obtaining facts via careful observations.

Pseudopsychology is an illegitimate science that propagates erroneous “facts” about behavior and mental processes.

Confirmation bias is psychological tendency to ignore evidence that contradict with one’s view and promote details that support one’s view.

Experimental psychologists are scientists who study behavior and mental processes by conducting experiments.

Teachers of psychology are psychologists who give instructions on the subject.

Applied psychologists are scientists who use established knowledge of behavior and mental processes to solve real world problems.

Psychiatry is the scientific study of psychological disorders.

Structuralism is an anachronistic branch of psychology which claims that conscious thought consisted of fundamental elements.

Introspection is the mental practice of recalling what happens in one’s mind.

Functionalism is an old-fashioned psychological school that believed that behavior and mental processes are best understood by their practical functions.

Gestalt psychology is a no-longer-accepted school of thought that believed in perception consisting of wholes (Gestalt means whole in German).

Behaviorism is an outdated branch of psychology which ignores mental processes and focuses on observable behavior.

Psychoanalysis is a psychological method that postulates the existence unconscious conflicts within the mind.

Biological view is a psychological approach that focuses on the link between physical and genetic components of the body and behavior.

Neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that studies how mental processes occur.

Evolutionary psychology is a comparatively young science that approaches behavior and mental processes in terms of their adaptive advantages for the organism.

Developmental view is a psychological approach that focuses on changes that take place during an organism’s life.

Cognitive view is a branch of psychology that studies forms of mental information processing.

Cognitions are mental activities such as thinking, remembering, sensing and perceiving.

Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that considers the brain a data processor.

Clinical view is a branch of psychology that focuses on mental health and disorders.

Psychodynamic psychology is a form of the clinical view that considers mental disorders consequences of unconscious thoughts and conflicts.

Humanistic psychology is a form of the clinical view that focuses on human potential and growth.

Behavioral view is a branch of psychology which believes that external causes are the roots of our actions rather than internal processes.

Sociocultural view is a branch of psychology that focuses on social and cultural influence on mental processes and behavior.

Culture is a set of shared language, customs, values, food of a particular people.

Trait view is a branch of psychology which postulates the genetic roots of psychology.

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