Chapter V: States of Consciousness

Consciousness, aka awareness, is the state during which the brain is able to keep track of the environment and internal conditions.

Cognitive neuroscience is a field in which specialists of different areas collaborate to elucidate the connection between the brain and mental processes.

Nonconscious processes are those that do not at all involve consciousness.

Preconscious memories are information that can be quickly evoked by conscious processes.

Unconscious is the group of mental processes that occur outside of consciousness.

Daydreaming is a change in consciousness in which the brain diverts its attention from the immediate environment.

Circadian rhythm is a biological cycle in humans that has a period of around 24 hours.

REM sleep is a stage of sleep during which the closed eye moves rapidly that is associated with dreaming, takes place about every 90 minutes during the sleeping period.

Non-REM sleep is when the sleeper does not exhibit rapid eye movements.

Sleep debt is when the body lacks sufficient sleep.

Sleep paralysis is when bodily muscles are unable to move except those controlling eye movements, occurs during REM sleep.

Manifest content is the plot of the dream.

Latent content is the interpretation of the dream.

Activation-synthesis theory is the idea that the brain synthesizes dreams from random electrical pulses released by the brain stem.

Insomnia is a sleep disorder characterized by sleep deficiency, failure to fall asleep quickly, relatively high irritability and early awakenings.

Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness involving focused attention, deep relaxation and openness to suggestions.

Meditation is a state of consciousness caused by repetitive actions, intense inward attention and certain body positions.

Psychoactive drugs are chemicals that affect mental processes and behavior through the brain.

Hallucinogens, drugs that induce hallucinations, are chemicals that affect perceptions of the outside world.

Opiates, from opiates, are highly addictive drugs that are strong analgesics.

Depressants are drugs that decelerate mental and physical activities by blocking neural messages.

Stimulants are drugs that accelerate mental and physical activities.

Tolerance is the amount of effectiveness a drug has lost on a particular person.

Physical dependence is when the body adjusts itself to eventually become dependent on a certain drug for proper functioning.

Psychological dependence is when one graves for a certain drug although there are no physical needs.

Addiction is when one is physically or psychologically dependent on a drug and experiences unpleasant symptoms if withdraws.

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