Chapter 8: Emotion and Motivation
Emotion is a psychological process that involves the interaction between physiological arousal, subjective feelings, cognitive interpretation and behavioral expression.
Display rules are accepted ways of expressing emotions in a particular society.
Lateralization of emotion is the differences between the two brain hemispheres in that the left hemisphere influences positive emotions and the right hemisphere negative emotions.
James-Lange theory is the idea that a stimulus provokes a physical arousal which then produces an emotion.
Cannon-Bard theory is the idea that emotions and physical arousal occur simultaneously.
Two-factor theory is the idea that emotions emerge due to (1) physical arousal and (2) an emotion-evoking stimulus.
Cognitive appraisal theory is the idea that people decide how they ought to have felt after an event has occurred.
Opponent-process theory is the idea that emotions come in pairs and when one is provoked, the other is suppressed.
Inverted U function is a graph relating arousal and performance. It shows that very high and very low levels of arousal produce poor performance.
Sensation seekers are individuals in Zuckerman’s theory who have a higher biological need for stimulation than most people.
Emotional intelligence is the ability to control and understand one’s emotions as well as others’.
Polygraph is a device that records signs of physiological arousal – heart rate, breathing rate, perspiration and blood pressure – but is often mistaken as a lie detector.
Motivation is the mental processes that shape and maintain physical and psychological activities.
Drive is a biology-based motivation.
Motive is an internal (or psychological) urge that is learned.
Intrinsic motivation is the desire to participate in an activity for no reasons other than doing so.
Extrinsic motivation is the desire to take part in an activity in order to obtain a reward.
Conscious motivation is the awareness of a motivation.
Unconscious motivation is the lack of awareness of a motivation. This is emphasized by the Freudian theory.
Instinct theory is the proposal that organisms have innate behaviors, or instincts, that promote survival.
Fixed-action patterns are biology-based behaviors shared throughout a species that are invoked by specific stimuli. This concept now replaces instincts.
Need is a biological imbalance which can threaten survival if left unmet.
Homeostasis is the biological tendency to maintain vital conditions within a specific and narrow range for the sake of survival.
Locus of control is an individual’s belief where the influences on his/her life originate.
Hierarchy of needs is a set of needs arranged by importance in Maslow’s theory.
Overjustification is when external reinforcements discourage internal motivation.
Need for achievement (n Ach) is a psychological motive that urges an individual to excel and reach goals.
Individualism is a societal tendency, common in Western cultures, that emphasizes the individual.
Collectivism is a societal tendency, common in Asian cultures, that emphasizes the group.
Set point is the body’s tendency to maintain a certain level of fat and weight.
Volumetric thirst is when the level of extracellular fluids is too low.
Osmotic thirst is when the level of intracellular fluids is too low.
Sexual response cycle is four sequential stages of human sexual activity: arousal, plateau, orgasm and resolution.
Sexual scripts are learned ways of responding to a sex-related situation.
Approach-approach conflict is when one must choose between two favorable options.
Approach-avoidance conflict is when one must take both the pluses and minuses of an option into consideration.
Avoidance-avoidance conflict is when one must choose between two undesirable options.
Multiple approach-avoidance conflict is when one must consider many advantages and drawbacks of the available options.
Sexual orientation is the direction of one’s sexuality.
Stress is a physiological and psychological response to a difficult situation.
Stressor is a condition that stimulates stress.
Traumatic stressor is a condition that threatens one’s survival and arouses feelings such as fear and helplessness.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological condition characterized as belated stress reaction in which the patient involuntarily recalls the trauma.
Acute stress is a stress-triggered response that is ephemeral.
Chronic stress is a stress-triggered response that persists over time.
Fight-or-flight response is a pattern of behavior exhibited to prepare the organism to either handle or escape a stress.
General adaptation syndrome (GAS) is a pattern of general responses to serious chronic stressors.
Alarm reaction is the first phase of GAS in which the body mobilizes its resources to handle the stressor.
Stage of resistance is the second phase of GAS in which the body uses its resources to handle and adapt to the stressor.
Stage of exhaustion is the third phase of GAS in which the body runs out of the resources needed to cope with the stressor.
Tend-and-befriend model is a stress respond method used primarily by females who seek to protect offspring and social support.
Immune system is the set of structures in the body responsible for protecting it against foreign invaders.
Psychoneuroimmunology is an interdisciplinary field that is concerned with the relationship between mental states and the immune system.
Cytokines are hormone-like chemicals used as communication between the brain the immune system.
Type A is a behavior pattern characterized by aggressive responses to a threat.
Type B is a behavior pattern characterized by relaxed responses to a threat.
Learned helplessness is a behavior pattern characterized by refusal to respond to a threat after the organism learned that its responses are ineffectual.
Flow is when a person is genuinely and intensely interested in an activity and receives pleasure consequently. It involves intrinsic motivation.