Chapter 12: Psychological Disorders

Psychopathology, literally mental disorder, is any pattern of emotions, behaviors or thoughts that occur as a result of distress, maladaptiveness, irrationality, unpredictability and unconventionality.

Hallucinations are any perceptions without physical stimuli.

Delusions are thoughts and behaviors that are incongruent with reality.

Affect is a term referring emotion or mood.

Medical model is the belief that psychological disorders have objective causes and specific treatments.

Social-cognitive-behavioral is the belief that psychological disorders result from the interaction of social, cognitive and behavioral factors.

DSM-IV is the fourth edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association classifying widely-recognized mental disorders.

Neurosis was a nonscientific term predating the DSM-IV used to describe distress and self-defeating behavior with no apparent causes.

Psychosis is a disorder characterized by great abnormalities in perception, thinking and emotions.

Mood disorders are mental illnesses involving disturbances in emotions.

Major depression is a mood disorder whose symptoms persist even though the triggering event has long passed.

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a DSM-IV specifier for mood disorders thought to be caused by the lack of exposure to sunlight.

Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by the frequent alternation between mania and depression.

Anxiety disorders are psychological illnesses that involve anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental disease whose symptom is persistent anxiety with no obvious external causes.

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder whose symptom is frequent panic attacks that are not connected with the patient’s present experience.

Agoraphobia is an irrational fear of public spaces that usually follows a panic attack.

Phobias are anxiety disorders characterized by irrational and extreme fear of a specific item.

Preparedness hypothesis is the idea that we share an innate ability to automatically and speedily respond to a situation/stimulus that clearly threatens survival.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mental illness whose symptoms are recurring patterns of unwanted thoughts and behaviors.

Somatoform disorders are mental illnesses expressed in physical bodily symptoms without obvious physical causes.

Conversion disorder is a somatoform disorder that involves loss of a sense or paralysis but does not have any obvious physical causes.

Hypochondriasis, also hypochondria, is a somatoform disorder characterized by an excessive concern with illness.

Dissociative disorders are mental illnesses involving the disconnectedness of personality.

Dissociative amnesia is a dissociative disorder that involves the loss of memory for personal details.

Dissociative fugue is a dissociative disorder that has the same symptoms as dissociative amnesia plus fleeing from home for job.

Depersonalization disorder is a dissociative disorder involving the sensation that the mind and body are separated.

Dissociative identity disorder is a mental illness whose victims display multiple distinct personalities.

Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by continued loss in appetite due to psychological causes rather than physical ones.

Bulimia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the patient overeating then vomit or fast in order to control weight.

Schizophrenia is a group of mental illnesses characterized by distortion in thoughts and perception.

Diathesis-stress hypothesis is a theory proposing that environmental factors determine whether an individual who has the genetic potential to contract schizophrenia suffers from the disease.

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